Welcome to the Greener Future with Electric Vehicles
Our life revolves around IC Engine based automobiles that were considered the only mode of transport once. But scientists and environmentalists have been concerned about the pollution all over the world. The electric vehicles started gaining its popularity because it is a cleaning and greener means of transport and contribute to the pollution-free Earth.
The evolution of electric vehicles leads to a major use of electric motors in the drive train replacing the conventional combustion engine. The use of electric motor dates to early 18th century, when Anyos Jedlik developed a model electric car that could move on its own using a small electric motor. Later, large electric motors were created, and electric vehicles were used in small scale. Today EVs are being developed and used at a larger scale and electric motor along with its drive play a major role in it.
Today electric vehicles derive their energy from the lithium ion batteries and drive the wheels using motors. Now you must be wondering that do we need to replace batteries all the time. Well that’s a great needs time to develop. The easier way is that we can plug our EVs just like how we charge out phones. But the charging time depends on the type of chargers we use. While some takes 8–10 hours to charge (level 1 charging), faster chargers may take 30 minutes only. Hence development of electric vehicle equally with charging infrastructure is a very importance factor.
India is going to be Electric
Next decade will be electric. Why did I say so? Electric vehicles are expensive because of its battery. With the rising technology, the batteries have become 70% more cheaper and developed. Also the Covid-19 scenario has led India move into usage of Make-in-India products only.
India unveiled the ‘National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020’ to make a major shift to electric vehicles and to address the issues of national energy security, vehicular pollution and growth of domestic manufacturing capabilities. Finance minister Arun Jaitley announced Faster adoption and Manufacturing of electric vehicles (FAME) scheme aimed to offer incentives for clean-fuel technology cars to boost their sales to up to 7 million vehicles by 2020 and also by establishing necessary charging infrastructure for EVs. The government of India intended to move to 30 per cent electric cars by 2030.
Currently, major cities in India like Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore and more have adopted e-rickshaws and electric buses. The Cabs companies like OLA, UBER, YULU etc are also launching e-cycles, e-rickshaws and electric vehicles. Currently, there are only 150 charging stations in India and anticipating the need, Government of India has set up an ambitious target of setting up one charging station every three km in cities and every 25 km on both sides of highways. Companies like ABB, Acme Industries, Fortum India and a few Dutch firms are actively considering setting up vehicle charging stations.
Electric Vehicle Components
An electric vehicle has 3 primary components: –
· Battery: — A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices. Batteries are the source of energy for an electric vehicle. The battery stores and supplies power to an electric vehicle.
Enroll in Battery Management System in Electric Vehicles to gain in-depth knowledge.
· Motor: — Electric motors can be defined as an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The motors drive the wheels of the vehicles that help it to run.
· Power Electronics: — It consists of Battery Management System, Motor controller, Charging circuit etc. A Motor Controller is a device that acts as an intermediary between the vehicle’s microcontroller, batteries and motors. A motor controller is necessary because a microcontroller can usually only provide roughly 0.1 Amps of current whereas most actuators require several amps. A battery management system or BMS is an electronic system, which manages a battery (rechargeable battery — Cell or battery pack, by protecting the battery from operating outside its safe operating area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it and/or balancing it.
Other than the main components, electric vehicles have many other components such as regenerative braking, electric drive system, driver assistant systems and many more. The electric vehicle technology is developing day-by-day. One of the emerging technologies is the battery swapping technology. As charging stations are less in number and the charging time is more, battery swapping technology is gaining popularity.
Careers in the EV Industry
The EV industry is vast and has many fields within it. Every profession is needed in this industry to contribute to a greener world. There is a need to improve the performance of Electric Vehicles especially by improving battery, recharging technology, and materials and connected vehicles.
Electronics and Communication Engineering
Developing firmware for Battery Management System, Developing Infotainment system, Manufacturing and installing sensors in the vehicle, Power electronics
Working on motors, Quality Control, Testing of Battery Packs, Developing wiring harness for multifold functions in the EV Charging solutions
Vehicle Design, Robotics for parts assembly, Powertrain component development
Manufacturing of Lithium Ion cells, Manufacturing/Assembly of Battery Packs, Recycling of Batteries
Developing algorithms for Battery Management System (BMS), Making IoT Modules for sharing real-time data generated by EV, Using AI to improve the efficiency of BMS, Developing Charging infrastructure and App, Data Science.
Thermal Systems, Vehicle and Parts Design and Manufacturing
Designing eco-friendly materials from the electric vehicles as well as for batteries.
What EVs are today will be different from what EVs will be tomorrow. World is developing on electric mobility. In the next decade we will be looking forward to an Electric World.
Top Electric Vehicle manufactures in India
Mahindra Electric: — The first revolutionized electric vehicle was launced by Manhindra Electric and now it has also launced electric 3-wheeler Treo and many more electric 4-wheeler.
Tata Motors: — It is converting 4-wheelers such as Nexon and Tigor into electric and will target range of 300 km to address range anxiety issues often related to EVs in the country
Ather Energy: — The company claims that both the electric scooters have been designed to address various problems in EV two-wheeler segment such as slow charging, low powered motors as well as shorter battery life. Ather Energy is also offering Ather One plan that includes free access to public and home charging, breakdown assistance as well as unlimited data service among others.
Hero Electric: — Hero electric rolls out a range of electric two wheelers as well as electric three wheelers like Optima, Nyx, Flash and Photon electric scooters
Hyundai Kona electric: -Charging up the Indian electric vehicle ecosystem, Hyundai launched its Kona EV in India with ARAI-certified range of 452 km. The Kona is equipped with lithium-ion polymer battery, against the conventional nickel-metal hybrid batteries for excellent charging and discharging efficiency.
MG Motor: -The MG ZS offers ARAI certified range of 340 kms and can be charged via two options- using normal 15 A AC charger in about 6–8 hours and 50 kW DC charger that can charge the vehicle up to 80 % in less than an hour.
Ashok Leyland: — The manufactures electric buses that are designed for Indian conditions and has tied up with Sun Mobility to enhance its expertise in electric vehicle domain and introduce battery swapping in electric buses to address e-mobility needs in the country.
Advantages of Electric Vehicles
- Cheaper to run and maintain
- It eliminates fuel cost and use of fuel
- Better for the environment
- Less pollution
- Eco-friendly materials
- Batteries run for about 8 years after which replacement is necessary
- Fast and easy home charging
- Good Performance